控制 PRRS 病毒的新见解 New insights to control PRRS virus

2021-06-17

猪繁殖与呼吸综合征(PRRS)病毒是目前养猪业面临的最重要的病原之一。病毒的影响不单单是由疾病本身造成的,而是由于继发感染的流行率增加。在管理和生物安全措施不能完全控制疾病的“问题”农场,免疫调节策略可以帮助控制PRRS。

Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) virus is one of the most important pathogens the swine industry is currently dealing with. The impact of the virus is not only caused by the disease itself, but is also due to increased prevalence of secondary infections. On “problem” farms, where farm management and biosecurity measures cannot fully control the disease, an immunomodulation strategy could help control PRRS.

PRRS病毒(PRRSV)属于动脉病毒科,是一种小的、有包膜的单股正链RNA病毒。PRRS的临床症状变化很大。流产、死产胎、断奶前死亡率和断奶猪、育肥猪呼吸道疾病的大幅增加是PRRS常见的临床症状。感染PRRSV的猪对继发性细菌或病毒感染的敏感性显著增加。例如,常见的猪链球菌并发感染。继发感染的流行以及PRRSV造成的直接损失是这种病毒综合征造成重大经济影响的原因。猪肺泡巨噬细胞(PAMs)是PRRSV复制的主要靶细胞之一。这些细胞通过吞噬作用、抗原呈递和产生细胞因子,充当抵御吸入微生物颗粒的第一道防线。PRRSV在猪肺泡巨噬细胞中复制时,这些基本功能直接受损。

PRRS virus (PRRSV) belongs to the family of arterivirus_es and is a small, enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA virus. Clinical signs of PRRS are highly variable. Substantial increases in abortions, stillbirths, pre-weaning mortality and respiratory diseases in weaners and growers are commonly reported clinical signs of PRRS. The susceptibility of PRRSV-infected pigs to secondary bacte_rial or viral infections increases dramatically. For instance, concurrent infections with Streptococcus suis are frequently reported. The prevalence of secondary infections together with the direct losses caused by PRRSv are the reason for the major economic impact of this viral syndrome. One of the main target cells for PRRSV replication are porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs). These cells serve as the first line of defence against inhaled microbial particles by means of phagocytosis, antigen presentation and production of cytokines. These basic functions are directly impaired when PRRSV replicates in PAMs.

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